Protecting sensitive information has become increasingly challenging in today’s highly competitive and interconnected business landscape and rapid technological advancements. Whether a startup shares trade secrets with potential investors or an established corporation collaborates with partners on a new project or employment relationship, safeguarding confidential information is paramount. One effective legal tool that businesses and individuals use to ensure that any disclosed information remains secure and is not shared with unauthorized individuals or entities is the Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA).

What are Non-Disclosure Agreements?

A Non-Disclosure Agreement, or a Confidentiality Agreement, is a legally binding contract designed to protect sensitive and proprietary information from being disclosed to unauthorized parties. NDAs establish a confidential relationship between the parties involved, ensuring that confidential information shared during business dealings remains secure and inaccessible to competitors or any third parties. In such a confidential relationship, either one or both parties are obligated not to disclose the information to others.

By signing an NDA, the parties agree not to disclose, use, or exploit the confidential information for purposes other than the intended business transaction. NDAs are commonly used in various scenarios, such as when companies share trade secrets, proprietary knowledge, customer lists, financial data, or any other sensitive information with employees, contractors, partners, or potential investors.

Why are NDAs Important?

Preserving Intellectual Property: Protecting intellectual property and proprietary information might be crucial for businesses to retain their competitive advantage. NDAs prevent others from using or disclosing such valuable data for their gain.

Enhancing Trust in Business Relationships: By signing an NDA, parties demonstrate a commitment to respect each other’s confidential information, building a foundation of trust in their business relationships.

Avoiding Misappropriation of Information: NDAs create a legal obligation for recipients not to misuse or share the disclosed information inappropriately, reducing the risk of information misappropriation.

Confidentiality During Negotiations: During merger and acquisition negotiations or while seeking investments, NDAs ensure that sensitive financial and business details remain confidential until the deal is finalized.

Components of an NDA in Ontario

When drafting an NDA in Ontario, several key components should be considered:

Parties: The NDA should clearly identify the parties involved, including their names and contact details.

Definition of Confidential Information: The agreement should explicitly define what information is considered confidential. This can be described in specific terms or broad categories. This can include information on the following topics:

  • Business operations – internal personnel, financial information, vendor names, operational manuals, databases, manner and methods of operation of a business
  • Customer information
  • Intellectual property – trade secrets, copyrights, patents
  • Service Information – plans, schedules, manpower, inspection, and training information
  • Product information – research and development of a product
  • Production processes – procedures, design, equipment, devices, program models, patterns etc.
  • Accounting information – financial statements, annual reports, balance sheets, company asset information, liability information, revenue and expense reporting, profit and loss reporting, accounts receivable-payable
  • Marketing and Development Information – Potential strategies for marketing, price and cost data, price and fee amounts, profit amounts, billing and pricing policies, marketing techniques etc.
  • Computer Technology – technical information to any machine, appliance, or process, models, formulas, designs, test results, simulation results, materials, components, know-how, and show-how
  •  Proprietary Computer Codes – computer programs, any report format, design or drawing created by the employer, charts and designs

Duration of Confidentiality: The NDA should specify the length of time for which the confidentiality obligations will remain in effect.

Obligations of the Receiving Party: This section outlines the responsibilities of the recipient regarding the handling and protection of the disclosed confidential information. It usually states that the receiving party must keep the information confidential, refrain from using it for any purpose other than the intended one and take reasonable steps to prevent unauthorized disclosure.

Exclusions from Confidentiality: This clause may exclude certain information from being considered confidential, such as information that was already known to the receiving party before the agreement or information that becomes publicly available through no fault of the receiving party. The NDA may include exceptions that allow the recipient to disclose confidential information, such as with prior written consent or as required by law.

Consequences of Breach: The NDA should detail the consequences that may result from a breach of the agreement, such as potential damages or injunctive relief.


Non-disclosure agreements are an essential tool for protecting confidential information and fostering trust in business relationships. By establishing clear guidelines and legal obligations, NDAs ensure that sensitive information remains confidential and secure throughout business transactions. Whether you are a business owner, an employer, an entrepreneur, or an individual seeking to protect your valuable information, consulting with a knowledgeable legal professional is crucial to drafting a comprehensive and enforceable NDA that aligns with your objectives and safeguards your confidential information effectively.

If you are seeking a Toronto small business lawyer to get your non-disclosure agreement reviewed or drafted, contact us to book a consultation!

The information provided above is of a general nature and should not be considered legal advice. Every transaction or circumstance is unique, and obtaining specific legal advice is necessary to address your particular requirements. Therefore, if you have any legal questions, it is recommended that you consult with a lawyer.