Shareholders Agreements

Shareholder’s Agreement in Ontario: Benefits and Guide

A Shareholder’s Agreement is a legal document that governs the relationship among the shareholders of a corporation, often supplementing the corporation’s articles and by-laws. While the Ontario Business Corporations Act (OBCA) sets forth the fundamental laws governing corporations, a Shareholder’s Agreement provides an additional layer of rules that can offer several advantages to stakeholders.

What Is a Shareholder’s Agreement?

Under Ontario law, a Shareholder’s Agreement is a formal written contract entered into voluntarily by all the shareholders of a corporation. This agreement outlines their rights, responsibilities, and obligations. It can also encompass various critical issues like share transfers, dispute resolution, dividend policies, and more.

What is included in a shareholder agreement?

Some of the items that are included in Shareholder Agreements:

Shareholder Rights and Obligations: Clearly define the rights and obligations of each shareholder, such as voting rights, dividend entitlements, and participation in decision-making processes. This section outlines the roles and responsibilities of shareholders in the corporation.

Share Transfer Provisions: Specifying the conditions and procedures for transferring shares among shareholders. This may include any restrictions on selling shares to third parties and rights of first refusal for other shareholders, helping maintain ownership stability.

Decision-Making and Governance: Outlining the procedures for decision-making within the corporation, including how critical corporate matters are voted on and how the board of directors is appointed or elected. This section establishes the framework for efficient governance.

Dispute Resolution Mechanisms: Including provisions for resolving shareholder disputes, such as mediation or arbitration procedures. This helps prevent conflicts from escalating and provides a structured way to address disagreements.

Protective Provisions for Minority Shareholders: Incorporating protective clauses to safeguard the interests of minority shareholders. This ensures that minority shareholders have a say in certain significant decisions and prevents actions that may unfairly prejudice their rights.

Shareholder Exit Strategies: Outlining the methods for valuing shares and facilitating the departure of a shareholder, whether due to retirement, sale of shares, or other reasons. This section helps plan for the future and provides a straightforward process for shareholder exits.

To learn more, read our article about Important Clauses To Include in Shareholder’s Agreement.

Benefits of a Shareholder’s Agreement in Ontario

  1. Clear Governance Structure: Unlike the more generalized mandates under OBCA, a Shareholder’s Agreement can detail the specific roles and responsibilities of each shareholder.
    • Example: The agreement can specify that certain decisions, like mergers or issuing new shares, require a 75% majority approval rather than the typical 50%+1 majority mandated by the OBCA.
  2. Dispute Resolution: The agreement often includes provisions for resolving shareholder disagreements, thus averting costly and time-consuming legal battles.
    • Example: A “shotgun” clause could be implemented, allowing a shareholder to offer to buy another’s shares at a specified price and obligating them to sell their shares at that price if the offer is reversed.
  3. Share Transfer Restrictions: A Shareholder’s Agreement can restrict the free transfer of shares, allowing existing shareholders more control over who enters the shareholder circle.
    • Example: “Right of first refusal” clauses compel a selling shareholder to offer their shares to existing shareholders before seeking external buyers, as a deviation from the default OBCA regulations.
  4. Exit Strategy: The agreement can outline the procedure for valuing and selling a shareholder’s interest, making the process more streamlined and predictable.
    • Example: A predetermined valuation formula can be stated for situations like retirement, insolvency, or death of a shareholder.
  5. Protecting Minority Shareholders: Special clauses can provide additional rights to minority shareholders, such as veto powers on specific matters.
    • Example: The agreement can require unanimous consent for decisions like selling the company’s assets, overriding the less stringent requirements of the OBCA.
  6. Operational Efficiency: By reducing ambiguities and clarifying decision-making procedures, the agreement helps efficient management.
  7. Legal Certainty: In contrast to relying solely on the general guidelines of the OBCA, a customized Shareholder’s Agreement offers specific, legally enforceable commitments between parties.


A Shareholder’s Agreement offers a nuanced framework for governing corporate relationships, providing clarity, and protecting interests beyond the general guidelines offered by the Ontario Business Corporations Act. Due to its substantial legal and operational implications, drafting this document should be executed with attention to detail and preferably under the guidance of a legal professional in Ontario corporate law.

For personalized advice on crafting a Shareholder’s Agreement in Ontario that aligns with your business needs and objectives, consider consulting with our law firm, which specializes in corporate law.

If you seek a shareholder agreements lawyer to draft comprehensive and effective agreements that align with your unique requirements, contact us today.

The information provided above is of a general nature and should not be considered legal advice. Every transaction or circumstance is unique, and obtaining specific legal advice is necessary to address your particular requirements. Therefore, if you have any legal questions, it is recommended that you consult with a lawyer.