Wills and Trusts in Estate Planning

Wills and Trusts in Estate Planning: Key Differences

Estate planning allows individuals to determine how their assets will be distributed upon their passing and how their financial affairs will be managed. Two commonly used instruments in estate planning are Wills and Trusts. While both serve the purpose of asset distribution, they have distinct differences in their structure, function, and application. This article will explore the key differences between Wills and Trusts in estate planning. Understanding these differences is essential for individuals and families seeking to create a comprehensive estate plan that aligns with their unique goals and circumstances.

What is a Will?

A Will, also known as a Last Will and Testament, is a legal document that outlines a person’s wishes regarding the distribution of their assets and the management of their estate upon their death. It is one of the most common and straightforward tools in estate planning.

The Function of a Will

A Will specifies how a person’s assets, such as property, bank accounts, investments, and personal belongings, should be distributed among beneficiaries, including family members, friends, or charitable organizations. It also allows the appointment of an executor who will be responsible for executing the wishes outlined in the Will.

Key Features of Wills

  • Wills are revocable, meaning they can be changed or revoked at any time during the testator’s lifetime.
  • They come into effect upon the testator’s death.
  • Wills are typically subject to probate, a legal process that validates the Will and oversees its administration in court.

What is a Trust?

A Trust is a legal arrangement where a person (the grantor or settlor) transfers their assets into a Trust, which a trustee manages. The trustee holds and administers the assets on behalf of the beneficiaries according to the terms specified in the Trust document.

The Function of a Trust

Trusts serve various purposes, such as asset protection, estate tax planning, and ensuring the efficient distribution of assets. Unlike Wills, Trusts can be used to manage assets during the grantor’s lifetime and after death.

Key Features of Trusts

  • Trusts can be revocable or irrevocable. Revocable Trusts can be altered or terminated by the grantor, while irrevocable Trusts typically cannot be changed without the beneficiaries’ consent.
  • Trusts can be used to avoid probate, providing a more private and efficient way of transferring assets.
  • They can include various types, such as living Trusts, testamentary Trusts, special needs Trusts, and charitable Trusts.

Key Differences Between Wills and Trusts

Probate Process

One of the most significant differences between Wills and Trusts is their involvement in the probate process. Wills are typically subject to probate, a court-supervised process that validates the Will, settles debts and taxes and oversees the distribution of assets. On the other hand, Trusts can often bypass probate, allowing for a more streamlined and private asset transfer.

Timing of Asset Distribution

Wills come into effect upon the testator’s death, and asset distribution occurs after the probate process is complete. In contrast, Trusts can facilitate the immediate transfer of assets upon the grantor’s death or during their lifetime, depending on the type of Trust.

Flexibility and Control

Wills are highly flexible and can be updated or revoked as needed. They provide a straightforward way to specify beneficiaries and distribution instructions. Trusts offer a higher level of control, allowing the grantor to dictate how assets are managed and distributed, even after their passing. Irrevocable Trusts, once established, offer less flexibility but can provide asset protection benefits.


A Will becomes a public record during probate, meaning anyone can access information about the deceased’s assets and beneficiaries. Trusts, especially revocable living Trusts, offer greater privacy, as they are not subject to probate and remain private documents.

Which Estate Planning Tool is Right for You?

The decision between using a Will, a Trust, or a combination of both depends on individual circumstances and goals. Factors such as the size and complexity of the estate, the desire for privacy, and the need for ongoing asset management play a significant role in this choice. It is essential to consult with an experienced estate planning attorney to determine the most suitable approach.


Wills and Trusts are essential tools in estate planning, each offering unique advantages and considerations. Understanding the key differences between the two is crucial for making informed decisions about the distribution and management of your assets. By consulting with legal professionals and tailoring your estate plan to your specific needs and objectives, you can ensure that your wishes are carried out effectively and efficiently, providing peace of mind for yourself and financial security for your loved ones. Estate planning is a dynamic process; periodic reviews are essential to ensure that your plan remains aligned with your evolving circumstances and goals.

If you need assistance from a Toronto wills and estates lawyer, contact us today and book a consultation with us!

The information provided above is of a general nature and should not be considered legal advice. Every transaction or circumstance is unique, and obtaining specific legal advice is necessary to address your particular requirements. Therefore, if you have any legal questions, it is recommended that you consult with a lawyer.

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