Franchise Disclosure Document Guide

Franchise Disclosure Document: A Comprehensive Guide

Franchising Introduction

Franchising has emerged as a popular business model in recent decades, offering aspiring entrepreneurs an opportunity to own and operate a business with the support of an established brand. However, it is crucial to understand the legal framework that governs this industry before exploring any franchise business.

In Canada, franchising is regulated at the provincial level, with certain provinces such as Alberta, Manitoba, British Columbia, New Brunswick, PEI, and Ontario having their franchise regulations for selling franchises. Ontario’s franchise legislation is governed by the Arthur Wishart Act (Franchise Disclosure), 2000, designed to address the power imbalance between franchisors and franchisees. 

At the heart of this framework lies the Franchise Disclosure Document (FDD), which provides prospective franchisees with essential information about the franchisor and the franchise opportunity to make informed decisions.

What is the Franchise Disclosure Document (FDD)?

The Franchise Disclosure Document (FDD) is a legally mandated document that Ontario franchisors must provide to potential franchisees. It provides a comprehensive source of information about the franchisor and the franchise opportunity, ensuring aspiring franchisees have access to vital information before committing to a franchise.

The Purpose of the FDD

The primary objective of the FDD is to furnish prospective franchisees with full and fair disclosure of essential information. This disclosure empowers potential franchisees to make informed decisions regarding their investment in a particular franchise opportunity. The FDD is designed to safeguard the interests of franchisees by ensuring they have access to information that can significantly impact their investment, including details about financial performance, franchise fees, and the franchisor’s history and experience.

Key Contents of the FDD

The FDD generally contains details regarding the franchisor, the franchisor’s business model, the franchise agreement terms, the initial and continuous costs associated with the franchised business, as well as the rights and responsibilities of both the franchisor and the franchisee.

Franchisor’s Background: information on the history of the company, details regarding the duration of its operational history, the total number of units/franchises under its umbrella, and any additional brands it runs.

Litigation History: This section discloses any past or pending litigation, civil actions, or convictions involving the franchisor, its directors, and officers.

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Information: If the franchisor or its executives (directors, officers etc.) have a history of bankruptcy, it must be disclosed in the FDD.

Financial Statements: They provide essential data for risk assessment, profitability analysis, and informed decision-making, ultimately contributing to a more transparent and fair franchising process.

Initial Fees and Investment: The FDD outlines the franchise fee, as well as estimates of other costs, such as real estate, equipment, and inventory.

Restrictions on Sources of Products and Services: Franchisees are informed about their obligations to purchase products or services from approved suppliers.

Territory and Renewal Terms: Franchisees learn about the geographic territory they will operate in and the terms and conditions of franchise renewal.

Training and Support: Information on the training and ongoing support provided by the franchisor is essential for prospective franchisees.

Conditions of Termination and/or Transfer of Franchise: Conditions related to termination and the transfer of a franchise are crucial aspects of a franchise agreement, which are also outlined in the FDD.

Dispute Resolution: Dispute resolution is an essential aspect of franchise agreements and is typically addressed in the Franchise Disclosure Document (FDD) to clarify how franchisors and franchisees should handle conflicts.

The FDD must be current, tailored to the specific franchise offering, and include all significant details. If substantial changes have occurred between the FDD’s date and the franchise agreement’s signing, the franchisor must inform the prospective franchisee of these changes. This disclosure can be made through issuing a Statement of Material Change (SMC). The obligation of disclosure is not continuous. However, the FDD must be updated when there is a change in a material fact.

The Franchise Disclosure Document carries significant legal implications. Failure to provide a complete and accurate FDD or misleading information within it can result in severe consequences for franchisors.

In Ontario, it is mandated that franchisors furnish prospective franchisees with an FDD. The FDD must be provided at least 14 days before any franchise agreement or related agreement is signed by the franchisor, its associates, and the franchisee.

If a franchisor does not comply with their disclosure obligations, there might be statutory remedies available against franchisors, such as the right of rescission and the right of action for damages due to misrepresentation who do not comply with their disclosure obligations. (in addition to the remedies of common law or equity if available)


In the complex world of franchising, the Franchise Disclosure Document (FDD) serves as a beacon of transparency, guiding prospective franchisees through the intricacies of the franchise opportunity. It is vital to ensure that individuals interested in franchising have access to essential information necessary for making informed investment decisions.

Franchisees and franchisors alike should recognize the FDD’s significance in safeguarding their interests and upholding the integrity of the franchising industry. By adhering to the legal requirements and providing complete, accurate, and honest information in the FDD, franchisors can build trust with potential franchisees, fostering successful and mutually beneficial franchise relationships.

Contact a Toronto Franchise Lawyer today to discuss your needs.

The information provided above is of a general nature and should not be considered legal advice. Every transaction or circumstance is unique, and obtaining specific legal advice is necessary to address your particular requirements. Therefore, if you have any legal questions, it is recommended that you consult with a lawyer.

Scroll to Top